Estrés oxidativo en peces inducido por retardantes de flama bromados, una revisión

  • Rosa M. Gónzalez-Rivera Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • Jésus Javier Espinosa-Aguirre Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
  • Hugo F. Olivares-Rubio Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Palabras clave: defensas antioxidantes, especies reactivas del oxígeno, estrés oxidativo, peces, retardantes de flama bromados

Resumen

Antecedentes. Los retardantes de flama son compuestos que se aplican como aditivos a diversos productos con el fin de reducir riesgos de incendios, entre los más usados se encuentran los retardantes de flama bromados (RFB) por su costo y eficiencia. Estos compuestos pueden alcanzar e impactar a los ambientes acuáticos; sin embargo, se carece de una revisión sobre el estrés oxidativo que ocasionan en los peces. Objetivos. Proveer una revisión sobre la inducción de estrés oxidativo en peces ocasionado por retardantes de flama bromados y aportar nuevas líneas de investigación. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda en Google Académico y se consideraron treinta artículos de acuerdo a los criterios de inclusión. Resultados. Los retardantes de flama bromados son capaces de inducir especies reactivas del oxígeno, daños en las membranas celulares, proteínas y en el ADN, así como modificar la respuesta de biomarcadores relacionados con la defensa antioxidante. También se encontró en estudios in vitro que una posible causa de inducción de es- trés oxidativo por estos compuestos ocurre a través de alteraciones en la actividad mitocondrial que causa incrementos en la producción de especies reactivas del oxígeno. Conclusiones. Es necesario incrementar estudios que consideren mezclas de RFB, particularmente, al tetrabromobisfenol A y a los nuevos retardantes de flama bromados debido a que su presencia en el ambiente es probable por la ausencia de restricciones normativas en su uso. Realizar estudios con especies de peces con reducida distribución geográfica por su alta susceptibilidad a contaminantes. Utilizar biomarcadores que involucren al daño oxidativo y a las defensas antioxidantes en un mismo estudio para obtener un panorama amplio de estos fenómenos y contribuir con otras investigaciones toxicológicas que colaboren al establecimiento de normas que controlen la liberación de estos contaminantes al ambiente.

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Publicado
30-03-2021
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Gónzalez-Rivera, R. M., Espinosa-Aguirre, J. J., & Olivares-Rubio, H. F. (2021). Estrés oxidativo en peces inducido por retardantes de flama bromados, una revisión. HIDROBIOLÓGICA, 31(1). Recuperado a partir de https://hidrobiologica.izt.uam.mx/index.php/revHidro/article/view/1546
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