Diversidad funcional en el ensamblaje de la ictiofauna del Océano Pacífico Oriental Tropical: Una revisión de dos décadas en su enfoque

  • Leonardo Andrés Abitia Cárdenas Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas Depto. de Pesquerías y Biología Marina
Palabras clave: convergencia evolutiva, diversidad biológica, equivalencia funcional, redundancia ecológica

Resumen

Antecedentes. Un tema relevante en ecología y evolución es la relación entre la diversidad biológica y la funcional a nivel del ecosistema; ambas importantes en los procesos evolutivos y la estructuración de comunidades complejas. Objetivos. Discutir hipótesis explicativas centradas en los patrones globales de la distribución de las especies junto con hipótesis seleccionadas que relacionen la riqueza y la biodiversidad de especies con la función del ecosistema. Diferenciar los términos de gremio y grupo funcional. Metodología. Presentar ejemplos de equivalencia funcional de los derivados de evolución convergente en términos de la forma y los hábitos ecológicos de los peces del océano Pacífico oriental tropical. Examinar la importancia de la redundancia en el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas, así como el impacto de las perturbaciones ambientales en la función del ecosistema. Resultados. En general, los sistemas con baja riqueza de especies y redundancia dentro de grupos funcionales son más vulnerables a las perturbaciones. Sin embargo, a pesar del extenso esfuerzo por comprender la relación entre la riqueza de especies/biodiversidad y el funcionamiento del ecosistema, se encontró que no existe consenso sobre el efecto de la pérdida de especies en el funcionamiento del ecosistema. Algunos suponen que cada especie es única y desempeña un papel particular en el ecosistema, mientras que las hipótesis alternativas indican que las especies se superponen en función de la sustentabilidad a nivel de ecosistema, de modo que la eliminación de la función de una especie puede ser reemplazada por la de otra especie. Conclusiones. El concepto más ampliamente aceptado es que un mayor número de especies aumenta la eficiencia en el uso de los recursos y también brinda resistencia contra los cambios o impactos ambientales a través de la redundancia funcional.

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Publicado
23-10-2019
Cómo citar
Abitia Cárdenas, L. A. (2019). Diversidad funcional en el ensamblaje de la ictiofauna del Océano Pacífico Oriental Tropical: Una revisión de dos décadas en su enfoque. HIDROBIOLÓGICA, 29(1), 17-40. Recuperado a partir de https://hidrobiologica.izt.uam.mx/index.php/revHidro/article/view/1384
Sección
Artículos de Revisión